REAL I-O, an input-output operation software is a generic toolbox of Input-Output (IO) analysis based on open-source architecture running on Windows XP/7.   Following the previous versions, termed PyIO (Nazara et al.,2003; Wu, 2009), Python is retained as the interface building software. However, the main modules of matrix calculations have been currently migrated to the R language environment. (SPlus equivalent freeware).  This change allows the users to introduce their own database and additional functions in a much more convenient way than in previous versions.

At the moment, several analytical functions of intra and inter-regional input-output analysis are preloaded in the REAL I-O package. The available codes of table operations and analysis are as follows:

Table operations

Displaying I-O tables

Displaying industrial structure of target regions by value-added and Output
  - Single region (country) analysis
  - Import penetration ratio
  - Leontief inverse / Backward linkages
  - Goshian inverse / Forward linkages
  - Import content shares of exports
  - Induced value-added by exports
  - Labor multiplier
  - Field of influence
  - Average propagation link
  - RAS procedure to update tables
  - Multi region (country) analysis
  - Interregional spillover effects
  - Average propagation link of multiregional framework

The latest set of software is available at The example data sources (e.g.OECD STAN Input-Output Database for 44 countries and Inter-country inter-industry are also included. See Appendix for the details and the updated function codes for analyses are also available.

We encourage users to send their suggestions, questions or signal any apparent errors to, mentioning REAL I-O in the title of email message.

See the manual for details.